托福写作套路 短期提升完全可能!

个人觉得托福写作是四个单项里套路最深的。也就是说,写作其实是可以通过短时间的突击准备得到大幅度提升的一项。至于我为什么会这么认为,从下面分享的备考的方法和思路你们也就可以看出来了。

 

综合写作

首先说下综合写作是什么样的东西吧,其实无非就是“一篇阅读+一段听力+总结”。开头给你3分钟看下给出的阅读材料,之后听一篇听力,最后总结下听力和阅读都说了什么,以及它们之间的逻辑关系是什么。
这里给出一个我做综合写作会有的一个笔记图,整张草稿纸分成两半,左半部分是reading部分,右半部分是listening部分。

托福综合写作
注意现在3分钟阅读开始了。这三分钟里你要做的事情就是尽可能快的从这三百个字左右的文章里提炼出各部分的核心内容。只要是做过一两次综合写作的同学都知道你在读完第一段的时候会得到一个『main idea』,即reading的主观点是什么,这个时候你就在草稿纸main idea那一栏把它给记下来。之后一般会有三段阅读,每一段的内容和模式差不多是相同的。一般会给出一个『supporting idea』,这个supporting idea一定是用来支持main idea的。
就好像你平时写作文的时候第一段会给出一个观点,就好比:我觉得A是个大好人(main idea),可是你光说A是大好人,不给出证明的点别人不信你啊,所以你接着说因为A是个诚实守信的好孩子(supporting idea),这里的诚实守信算是好人的一个标准吧。那考试给出的文章自然也是按这个逻辑走的,可是我们光说道理不行啊,为了论证文中给出的这个supporting idea,或是丰满文章内容,一定要给出一些evidence去支持这个supporting idea,就好比A是个诚实守信的好孩子,是因为他从来不欺骗同学、他从不食言等等,例子可多可少,具体数目不会有限制。

现在你能看懂我记笔记的草稿纸中给出的格式了吧。
一般第一段我们得出了reading的main idea,算是文章主旨。然后从接下来的三段中我们会得到三个supporting idea去支持main idea,而针对每个supporting idea我们又会有几个或多个evidence去支持它。好了,现在3分钟阅读时间到,你尽可能多的将内容都记下来了,你突然变得信心十足。
为什么说你信心十足,因为你心里已经大概有了一个框架:你知道听力会以什么样的方式来反驳阅读。对,基本上95%都是听力反驳阅读的,出现听力赞同阅读的实在是太少了。
就好比你看一个节目,两个新闻评审人针对某个问题展开讨论,当他们各持己见,针锋相对时你才会觉得我天!太精彩了!如果两个人都是你一句我一句互相说对方的是对的,或是嗯嗯,你说的很有道理,你就会觉得这个节目好像没那么有意思了。

在综合写作里基本也是这样的,听力会觉得阅读你这么讲,那我偏偏不同意,我觉得你是错的,我就是来反驳你的,我要一点一点地,有逻辑,有顺序地否定你。都说了是反驳了,那听力一定会针对阅读中提出的main idea, supporting idea, evidence来一一反驳。
那么自然listening肯定会说:“reading,你的main idea就是错的”,一般这个main idea也是listening一开始就会说出来的,那这个main idea是什么?reading 中的main idea取个反就是了啊。同样listening也要给出反驳的supporting idea,而这个supporting idea是一般都是和reading一一对应的,这也是为什么我爱在草稿纸上分成两栏来写,因为一一对应,看的很清楚。
还是举例说明,前面reading中说A是个诚实守信的好孩子,那listening肯定会说其实A一点都不诚实守信,而且针对reading给出的evidence它还会反驳的特别有道理,比如他从不欺骗同学是因为他怕其他同学打他,他从不食言?谁说的,上次就有人发现他食言了。

这个例子可能说的不是很确切,但是我想说的意思就是:listening是个逻辑性,针对性很高的东西,reading怎么证明它自己的supporting idea是对的,listening就针对它提出的supporting idea以及支持这些supporting idea的evidence一个一个地反驳,反驳到你无话可说。反驳完了我还要自己另外加上一些evidence来支持我这么说不单单是因为你是错的,而且我还因为我也有自己的evidence。到这里你大概就能够把草稿纸上的东西填满了。
可有时你说你自己听力不是很好,漏听了一些东西,那么是不是根据这个草稿纸上的表格和我前面说的,你可以试试看猜一些听力会怎么反驳,你看下是否reading中的东西listening都反驳到了,倘若你发现漏了一个,那你可以猜测,你漏听的这点就是用来反驳reading中相应的那一点的。然后你开始依据这些资料来写作文了,作文的结构可参考模板,大家可以上网搜索一下然后自己稍微改一下,使它变成你自己的独一无二的模板。
Tips: 不要在意字数问题,不要害怕写多了或写少了,重点是写全了。写全的意思就是,evidence你给我好好听,它举到的例子,具体到什么物品,你都给我写出来,有多详细就多详细,那个物品的名字你拼不来你就用按那个发音去猜,你的目的就是告诉考官,我听到了!只是不知道怎么写而已。你当时听力记下来的东西都是有用的,全给我写上去!reading你可以不用写那么详细,用自己的语言总结一下,点到就好,但是你得点全了。而listening你越详细越好!最后,每每写完一个supporting idea的段落后,段落的最后你最好写上:所以听力说阅读是错的 大致就是这个意思,这句话你得写,这体现了听力和阅读的关系。这句话不写你可能就从30变成了29。

 

模板
段一:The reading passage states that ... , whereas the listening believes that...

段二:To begin with, the reading insists that ... The speaker, however, argues that...

段三:Furthermore, the author of the reading claims... In contrast, the professor suggests that...

段四:Finally, the writer displays that... On the contrary, the lecturer indicates that...
这就是我用的无比简洁版模板,你喜欢花哨的话,上网自己搜吧。其实严格意义上不算模板,更像是提供给一个写作框架。
独立写作

其实这个家伙有点麻烦,因为我觉得这个拿good不难,但是你要拿满分的good就难了。因为综合写作你如果听力不错,你就按我上面的方法练,写全了,就可以拿到满分的good,可是独立写作毕竟还是要考一点水平的,所以这部分满分的good我个人认为没有前面的那个容易。但是如果你只想拿个good还是很easy的。
进入正题。
其实到后面我基本已经形成了一个写作思路,这个思路就是让步转折,结构就是这样的:
第一段+让步段+两个转折段+结尾,基本就是A比B好,B有一个好处,可是A有两个好处,A的好处点更多,或是A的好处更重大,所以A好,然后总结一下。
一般都希望大家事先准备好自己的一套模板,这里的模板我只局限在开头和结尾,就好比我到后面基本每次都是同样的开头和结尾,考试的时候自己稍微改动几个词就好了,独立写作部分一开始,我就开始写,差不多3分钟时间就把开头和结尾全敲完了,然后我就有更多的时间写我的中间段了。宗旨就是最好自己写,自己改,可以多看看范文之类的,自己总结一套,之后你就按那个写,背熟它,考试的时候3分钟潇潇洒洒噼里啪啦就将近100个词敲上去了,想想都爽。
这是我用的开头段,因为我后面都用让步转折,所以就用了这个开头。
In contemporary society, much ink has been spilled about......(题目改写),and some claim that... Such assertion, however, is torn to pieces by others. As far as I am concerned, the statement that...(题目改写)is arbitrary and one-sided because it fails to take all the related circumstances into consideration. We should analyze this statement comprehensively before we draw the eventual conclusion.结尾段In brief, based on the previous discussion, the issue...(改写题目)is complex and needs a case by case analysis. We are not supposed to disregard those situations where the statement is unjustifiable. As a result, I cannot totally agree with this statement.
之后就是中间段落怎么写了,这里我推荐大家多看看考题,将其分分类,想一想一般都有什么理由可以写,像压力、经济等理由是很适用的,你平时多练练考试的时候直接套上去就行了。这里给大家看几个例子:

 
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?Young people nowadays do not give enough time to help their communities.Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
题型:隐藏绝对词类

话题:社会类

分析:隐藏绝对词类的题目暗含的意思是一类人都应该做某事儿。
我们既可以完全同意这个事儿的2-3个好处,也可以完全不同意找到其2-3个比较好展开而且不重复的坏处,毕竟一个事儿很难适合所有人,只要我们找到一个反例,实际上就可以很好地反驳这个题目。
思路一:一边倒同意
1.由于很多大城市的生活成本高到了前所未有程度,现在的年轻人普遍面临着双重压力,因此没有时间和精力来帮忙社区。
First and foremost, with the living costs in most of megalopolises hitting all time high, a large proportion of young urban residents today are exposed to scissor-style pressure, as a result of which rare will be the spare time that is available for making contributions to improving the community. For relevant examples we only need to turn to the experience of my elder brother, a newly graduated college student, majoring in software engineering, working in a leading software company as a development engineer...
2.随着社交网络的出现以及生活节奏的加快,现在的年轻人跟邻居熟识的机会越来越少,自然也就不愿意去参与社区的改善。

On the top of that, there is no point for the young people working in metropolises to help their neighbors if the chance of getting acquainted with them seems quit slim, thanks mainly to the advent of social network applications and also to the increasingly rapid pace of modern life. My elder brother's experience can be cited here again to shed the light on this point.Money is the most important aspect in a job.Material reward is not the only factor to consider while choosing a job, but it is the most appealing, particularly for those seasoned employees, thanks to the ever-increasing living cost in the overwhelming majority of metropolises, to the scissor-style pressure they are exposed to from supporting their aging parents as well as raising children, and above all, to their strong desire of receiving salaries in a reasonable proportion to their years of strenuous work.Helping the community| Voluntary work is not the only factor to consider in their spare time, but it is the most appealing, particularly for those young people from affluent families, thanks mainly to the strong desire to escape the ennui of home and to find identity, and also to the sense of self-fulfillment gained in such kind of activities.
思路二:具体情况具体分析
对于条件比较差的年轻人来说,他们很难找到足够的时间来帮助改善社区因为他们没有选择只能不遗余力的赚更多的钱,甚至以牺牲自己的身体健康为代价。
With regard to young people in poor and backward areas, hardly could they have enough time to make contributions to the improvement of their communities on account of the fact that they have no options but to pull out all their stops to earn more money even at the cost their health. There are myriads of examples in our lives, one of which is my elder brother, a high school graduate, working as a waiter in a restaurant in Beijing.
然而,对于那些来自经济比较发达地区的年轻人来说,很容易想象他们中绝大部分人愿意在社区改善中扮演非常积极的角色。首先,他们更强烈的意识到和谐社区的必要性;其次,不断提高的生活水平使得他们不必成为最基础的需求担心,主要问题或许集中在通过改善社区获得新的成就感。
However, when it comes to the youth in economically advanced/vibrant areas, it takes little imagination to think that a majority of them are willing to play an active role in bettering their neighborhoods.Granted,  helping the community| Voluntary work is not the only factor to consider in their spare time, but it is the most appealing, particularly for those young people from affluent families, thanks mainly to the strong desire to escape the ennui of home and to find identity, and also to the sense of self-fulfillment gained in such kind of activities. It is much easier for the parents to raise children now than fifty years ago.

To achieve successful development of a country, a government should focus its budgets more on young children education than on higher education?
题型:二元素对比类

话题:教育类

分析:从涉及到主题出发,比如老师、学生、家长、国家的角度进行讨论

Today people cannot buy products based on information in their advertisements because advertisements are less honest than before.
题型: 今昔对比类

话题: 商业类

思路: 一边倒,但是从公司和个人两个角度进行分析
First of all, there is no denying that fewer and fewer companies would like to allure their customers through deceptive ads since the benefits of such kind of market activities pales into insignificance when set against their huge negative impact.Furthermore, at the individual level, with the advent of popularity of the internet, especially the introduction of all kinds of applications, an increasing number of consumers have come to the rude awakening that most of ads are at best informative and at worst misleading.
这里列出的都是body part最开头的几句,这里很多给出的理由和解题思路都给你列出来了,试着按他提供的这种自我分析一下。这里面其实有些句型和短语词组是考场上很高频地会用到的,你不妨就直接拿来背,不断地套这些句型去写不同主题的句子。因为我现在觉得水平不是很高的人如何在托福写作拿高分?不是真的考场上写出来的,是靠考场下准备出来的,是背出来的。像一些你平时觉得考试会经常用到的短语何不平时多总结多练习呢,考场上用到就直接蹦出来了,还会纠结怎么写比较好吗?就好比“许多”、“因为”这种的,你肯定会用,那就平日多总结。
TIPS:独立写作的终极tip就是: 字数越多越好!字数越多越好!字数越多越好!总结后得出的经验,你如果打字快就多写吧,真的你写个500字以上,我还真不信它不好意思不给你good,只要你别乱来(语法错的要死,文章逻辑整个崩坏),句子、词语简单一点根本没事。如果你写的短的话,那可能就要各方面做得好一些了。

 

来源:知乎,作者:Owen小羊。

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