托福独立口语选择类话题,考试要怎么破?

托福独立口语常考题型之一就是个人选择类或者说个人偏好类。比如:

- 你喜欢在大城市还是小城市生活?

- 喜欢发短信还是打电话?

- 喜欢把旧的东西留着还是处理掉?

而有选择困难症的同学在做这类题时,往往会脑袋冒烟,四肢无力,只能抽签决定which one。因此,笔者认为,与其逐道题目准备,不如在备课前期就准备一些“万金油”。用这些常用的理由,帮助自己在15秒准备时间过后,就能迅速有话可说。

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而笔者作为拥有数年经验的托福口语老师,也正想借此文为同学们梳理难点,轻轻松松搞定【选择类】独立口语题目

选择类话题,看起来花里胡哨,实际上离不开这四个维度,分别是:时间、花费、精力、个性。

1. 时间

做任何事情都要花时间,而现代人却顶着巨大的生活压力,每天奔波于工作、生活、学习中。尤其对于备考的同学而言,时间就更是稀缺资源了。因此,如遇这类题型,大家首先可以考虑的就是——你是否有时间做这件事。当然,咱们可以通过完整的逻辑链接形成基本的段子:先说没时间,然后说明自己的选择如何能够节约时间或更好利用时间,达到怎样的效果。一起来看一道题:

  题目

If you have one week to travel, would you like to visit just one place or to travel to several different places?

  节选同学的答题

If I had one week to travel, I personally prefer to stay at one place. I choose this because you get to settle down at one place. You can do anything you want instead of always hurrying to your next spot. (到这里说了快20秒,但信息表达效率并不高)

Furthermore, going to different places will distract you because you only have one week, and you have to separate that one week into several different places, which leaves you with only one or two days. With this, you will be able to only take a quick scan of what it there, but never get to blend in or fit in.

先撇开人称有些混乱和内容有重合的问题。这位同学的答案其实语音语调是很棒的,流利度也没话说。但如果只是这样的答题,可能只停留在26分。

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而如果想拿到满分,需要提高信息的传递密度。这里先修改第一段。大家可以看到怎样通过完整的逻辑链条传递更多的信息内容。

  如何修改

这里先修改一下他的主题句,变得更适宜展开。

If I had one week, I prefer to stay at one place because I get to take my time and have a better/in-depth travel experience. As student, I am always busy with classes, assignments and projects. So, to me time is precious. If I only have a one week of break, I wanna make the most of it. However, if I choose to visit different places, time will be wasted on the road. For example, I may have to switch between buses, taxis, or cars, which can take hours or days.

(第二段为避免内容重合,大家可以从省钱或其他方面考虑。)

2. 花费

有钱好办事。这自然不用说,生活中我们做出的太多选择可能都是受经济的制约。因此,这也是不费力就可以说好的。来看一道题:

  题目

Some people keep all things in the house, other people throw them away which do you prefer?

这道题不管选择哪个立场,花费都是可以作为原因来说的。逻辑链同样也可以固定下来。比如作为学生你没有钱,你的钱很金贵,需要精打细算,用省出来的钱做更重要的事情,一口气说个两三句不费力。然后再分析你的选择如何帮你省钱。

  高分示范

I prefer to keep old things in the house. First, it helps me save money. As a student, I don’t have much money. All my income comes from my parents. Therefore, I’d like to be careful with how I spend it and try to make use of what I have. For example, a lot of the old things are still usable- purses, shoes, photo frames and the like. If I just throw them away, then I have to buy new ones.

第二个理由的话,大家可以举例说说一些你舍不得扔的东西对于你的重要意义啦。

如果是另一个立场,同样也可以把省钱作为理由。因为东西越积累越多,需要清理的花费就越大。甚至可能要为此搬家。

I prefer to just throw away old things in the house. First, it helps me save money. Although many people believes that many old items are still usable, and throwing them away may be a waste, they forget that it also costs money to clean the house if we just keep hoarding things up. As things pile up and we slowly run out of rooms, we may even have to move to bigger houses, which means a much greater cost than if we just do away with the old items.

第二个理由大家应该很容易想到扔掉旧东西,也更容易move on或者买了新物品会有更好的体验这样的理由吧。

3. 精力

这个也是大家容易忽视的理由,但其实它很好说。任何活动都会消耗我们的精力,我们只需要在解释清楚具体是什么让我们疲惫就可以了。来看下面这道题:

  题目

Do you prefer to multitask or just focus on one thing at a time?

这道题是大家很熟悉的现象,比如,你有没有一边写作业一边和朋友聊天过?效率肯定很低吧?这其实是因为你的大脑需要高速运转,同时处理多项任务,导致你的精力短时间消耗很大。科普一下,研究也证明,大脑更习惯的运行方式其实是一次处理一件事。所以,咱们就可以这样作答:

  答案示范

I prefer to focus on one thing at a time. While most of us believe that multitasking means we should be more efficient, the truth is that when people multitask, they are simply changing from one task to another rapidly, which requires more great effort to focus and refocus, causing mental fatigue.

4. 个性

有时候我们做的选择是个性使然。比如内向的人要长时间和人打交道就容易累,但相反外向星人反而能从社交中获得能量。还有,内向的人可能倾向于深思考,外向的人可能偏爱轻松愉悦的活动或内容,等等。因此,只要能把不同的性格特点和我们做的选择的内在要求之间建立起有效连接,就很好答了。来看一道题:

  题目

Some people prefer to be the lab assistant as a part-time job at the university. Other people prefer to be the campus tour guide. Which position would you choose and why?

这道题的核心在于把lab assistant和campus tour guide所涉及到的具体活动和对于相应个性的要求。最明显的莫过于接触到的人群广泛度:前者可能只需要专注于实验室的工作,不太需要和人交流。但后者就要求善于和人打交道、回答他们的问题,为不同的人解决难题,这一般是外向星人更在行的。

  答案示范

I prefer to be a lab assistant. As an introvert, I need a lot of time alone. Being a lab assistant means I can probably just spend most of my time in the laboratory, dealing with data, equipment, or the main researcher. Unlike a campus tour guide who may have to deal with the crowd, the lab assistant job brings me more peace of mind.

另外一点可以从学到经验、知识方面作答。

作者:TD 托福教研组

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