SAT备考文法知识:动词主谓一致(2)

主谓一致

1. 含义:

主语和谓语的单复数一致,比如主语是复数,谓语动词必须是复数,要保持一致。

例如:Students are taking the test right now.

2. 用法:

  • (4) 定语从句的主谓一致
  • (5) 倒装结构
  • (6) 就近原则

(4) 定语从句的主谓一致

a) 定义:

i. 定语从句中关系代词作主语时,谓语动词的单复数由先行词决定

b) 例句

例句1:Thanks to the strength of the bonds between its constituent carbon atoms, a diamond has exceptional physical properties that make it useful in a wide variety of industrial applications.

解释:that从句的make由先行词that决定,that指代前面的physical properties。

c) 真题检测

(2018-03AS-Q29) Physicians focus on diagnosis and pharmacists focus on drug therapies, a division of labor that was cost effective and helpful for patients.

A. NO CHANGE

B. is

C. had been

D. would be

解析:通过前面的语态focus on看出是一般现在时,所以排除A/C/D三个选项,所以选B。

注:2018-03AS-Q29为2018年3月亚太真题29题。

(5) 倒装结构

a) 定义

将谓语的一部分或全部置于主语之前的语序叫做倒装语序。

b) 类型

完全倒装:将整个谓语提到主语之前;

部分倒装:只将be动词、情态动词或者助动词放在主语之前。

c) 例句

例句1: In the back of the textbook are a list of words that can be easily learned by those who want to improve their command of English.

解析:in the back of the textbook为地点状语,are是谓语动词,a list of words+that从句是真正的主语,该句的are在主语前,为全部倒装结构。

例句2: What becomes apparent from assessing scientific accomplishments is that only relatively recently has the necessary technology been developed for solving the mysteries of genetics.

解析:that从句中the necessary technology是真正的主语,has been developed是谓语动词,只有助动词has在主语前,为部分倒装结构。

d) 真题检测

(2016-11AS-Q34) Less well known were Nightingale’s promotion of statistical analysis in the field of medicine, even though this work may have been more important to the development of modern health policy.

A. NO CHANGE

B. are

C. is

D. had been

解析:谓语动词之前的less well known不能作主语,所以该句是倒装句,真正的主语是Nightingale’s promotion,是单数,所以排除A/B/D, 所以选C。

注:2016-11AS-Q34为2016年11月亚太真题34题。

(6) 就近原则

a) 定义

由下列词语连接的并列主语:"there be+句型; or ; either …or;nor; neither…nor;whether…or;not…but; not only…but also”; a, b or c 等,谓语动词可与后面第一个主语一致。

b) 例句

①What he does or what he says does not concern me.

②Neither you nor I am wrong.

③Not you but your father is to blame.

④Not only you but(also) he is wrong.

解析:1-4的例句中or或nor后的谓语动词与第一个主语动词一致,what he says/ I/ your father/ he都是单数,所以4个例句中的谓语动词也是单数。

c)  真题检测

What Tom said or what Mary said were the best possible solution for this program.

A. NO CHANGE

B. have been

C. had been

D. is

解析:根据what Tom said or what Mary said判断,该题考察就近原则,主语为谓语动词附近的what Mary said,是单数,所以排除A/B/C,所以选D。

作者:刘龙

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