托福英语写作——实现句子连贯(coherence)的几种方式

01 什么是连贯(coherence)?

托福写作评分标准中有重要的一条就是,要展现“unity and coherence.”

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其中unity主要讲的是主题和idea层面的一致性,确保整篇文章围绕一个中心论点来展开,没有出现偏离主题的情况。而coherence是内容和语言的顺畅、连贯,是具体实现unity的手段。如果一篇文章是连贯的,那么无论从逻辑和内容上都很顺畅,保持一种flow和易读性,就好像架有一座座桥梁,让读者能够顺利跟着作者的思路往下走,不会因为思维跳跃而造成读者理解上困难的情况。

事实上,Coherence体现在文章的各个层面,从词汇—>句子内部—〉句子之间,篇章之间都是一以贯之的,实现连贯的主要方式有:

1) use of repetitions

2) use of synonyms

3) use of transitional words

4) use of consistent pronouns.

5) use of logical order

6) use of colons and semicolons

 

下面我们一一来举例说明。

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1)use of repetition to link ideas, sentences, and paragraphs.

例1: 

Most students are intimidated by the works of William Shakespeare. They believe Shakespeare’s sonnets and plays are far too complicated to read and understand.

2) use of synonyms to link ideas, sentences, and paragraphs.

例1:

Parents actually expect kids to contribute their time to doing some household tasks, even though the tasks may not be fun. When kids get involved in household chores, they will recognize that a clean bedroom will bring a nice mood to the whole family.

3) use of transitional words to link ideas, sentences, and paragraphs.

例1: The girl is in favor of small animals, like cats and dogs, but she is afraid of fierce animals. Similarly, her little brother is terrified when someone mentions animals like lions and tigers.

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4) use of consistent pronouns 代词使用的一致性

With the good news that Shanghai is gradually relaxing its strict COVID-19 lockdown, Song Renka, a 27-year-old passionate biker who has been cycling since her teens has been able to hop off her stationary bike at home and once again take to the city streets dressed in her coolest skirt.

 

Every so often, someone on Twitter starts a fight (as one does) about the difference between romances and romantic comedies. This might seem like a silly argument, but the distinction is important.

5) use of logical order 使用一定逻辑顺序展开

逻辑顺序展开有很多不同方式,主要有

a. Chronological order 时间顺序

b. Comparison/contrast 对比

c. Logical division of ideas 拆分

d. Order of importance 重要性

e. Cause and effect 因果

例1:  对比

Making friends in the gym is fun, but there is no strong bond between you and your gym buddies. On the contrary, you can develop deep connections with your extreme sports teammates.

例2:  时间顺序

The process of machine translation of languages is complex. To translate a document from English into Japanese, for example, the computer first analyzes an English sentence, determining its grammatical structure and identifying the subject, verb, objects, and modifiers. Next, the words are translated by an English-Japanese dictionary. After that,…

6) Use of Colons and Semicolons 使用冒号或分号

例1:The professor covered many etiquette topics before beginning class: talking, sleeping, and use of cell phones.

例2: I’m a cat person by nature; John, on the other hand, likes dogs.

以上就是有关连贯(coherence)的一些常用方法,从词汇到句子再到篇章,需要我们时刻注意自己句子链接的顺畅性,既有一定的逻辑,丰富的内容,又让读者能很容易地读懂作者想表达的意思,只有这样,我们才能在写作单项考试中获得满意的分数哦!

 

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老师介绍:王蓉

教授科目:托福写作、雅思口语等课程

老师背景:英语科班出身,英语专业八级,发音地道纯正,亲和力强,持有高级中学英语教师资格证和国际英语教师资格证(TESOL证书)。致力于提高学生真实的英语表达、逻辑思维和交流能力。让英语学变得生动有趣,成为改变学生生命轨迹的愉快旅程!

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